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Ingredient: VINPOCETINE - Works Cited:

(1) Brush J, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A et al: The effect of Echinacea

purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69

expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res. 2006



(2) Jovanović ZB, Pavlović AM, Pekmezović T et al: Transcranial Doppler

assessment of cerebral vasomotor reactivity in evaluating the effects of

vinpocetine in cerebral small vessel disease: a pilot study. Ideggyogy Sz. 2013

Jul 30;66(7-8):263-8.


(3) Skoromets AA, Aliev KT, Lalayan TV et al: Cognitive functions and

treatment of their impairment in elderly patients with the vertebrobasilar

insufficiency. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013;113(4):18-24.



(4) Tabeeva GR, Azimova IuE: The multimodal strategy for the

neuroprotection in stroke: results of the Russian multicenter clinicalepidemiological

program SOKOL. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova.

2012;112(12 Pt 2):20-30. (Russian).


(5) Valikovics A, Csányi A, Németh L: Study of the effects of vinpocetin on

cognitive functions. Ideggyogy Sz. 2012 Mar 30;65(3-4):115-20. (Hungarian).


(6) Chukanova EI; Efficacy of cavinton in the treatment of patients with

chronic blood flow insufficiency. Russian multicenter clinical-epidemiological

program "CALIPSO". Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2010;110(12):49-

52. (Russian).


(7) Gavrilova SI, Kolykhalov IV, Fedorova IaB et al: Possibilities of preventive

treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of the 3-year open prospective

comparative study on efficacy and safety of the course therapy with

cerebrolysin and cavinton in elderly patients with the syndrome of mild

cognitive impairment. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2010;110(1):62-9.



(8) Afon'kin VIu, Dobretsov KG, Sipkin AV: The new scheme of cavinton

application to the treatment of chronic neurosensory loss of hearing. Vestn

Otorinolaringol. 2009; (6):69-70. (Russian).


(9) Skoromets AA, Tanashian MM, Chukanova EI et al: A multicenter program

on assessment of efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic scheme for

patients with chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S

Korsakova. 2009;109(5 Suppl 2):44-8. (Russian).


(10) Chukanova EI: Cavinton in the complex treatment of patients with

chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova.

2009;109(9):35-9. (Russian).


(11) Feher G, Koltai K, Kesmarky G et al: Effect of parenteral or oral

vinpocetine on the hemorheological parameters of patients with chronic

cerebrovascular diseases. Phytomedicine. 2009 Mar;16(2-3):111-7.


(12) Valikovics A: Investigation of the effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood

flow and cognitive functions. Ideggyogy Sz. 2007 Jul 30;60(7-8):301-10.



(13) Kemény V, Molnár S, Andrejkovics M et al: Acute and chronic effects of

vinpocetine on cerebral hemodynamics and neuropsychological

performance in multi-infarct patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Sep;45(9):1048-



(14) Szilágyi G, Nagy Z, Balkay L et al: Effects of vinpocetine on the

redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic

ischemic stroke patients: a PET study.J Neurol Sci. 2005 Mar 15;229-230:275-



(15) Vas A, Christer H, Sóvágó J et al: Human positron emission tomography

with oral 11C-vinpocetine]. Orv Hetil. 2003 Nov 16;144(46):2271-6.



(16) Szapáry L, Horváth B, Alexy T et al: Effect of vinpocetin on the

hemorheologic parameters in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease.

Orv Hetil. 2003 May 18;144(20):973-8. (Hungarian).


(17) Gulyás B, Halldin C, Sandell J et al: PET studies on the brain uptake and

regional distribution of [11C]vinpocetine in human subjects. Acta Neurol

Scand. 2002 Dec;106(6):325-32.


(18) Gulyás B, Halldin C, Sóvágó J et al: Drug distribution in man: a positron

emission tomography study after oral administration of the labelled

neuroprotective drug vinpocetine. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002



(19) Bönöczk P, Panczel G, Nagy Z: Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow

and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and

transcranial Doppler study. Eur J Ultrasound. 2002 Jun;15(1-2):85-91.


(20) Kolarov G, Orbetsova M, Nalbanski B et al: Complex effects of cavinton

on climacteric symptoms. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2001;42(2):37-41.



(21) Feigin VL, Doronin BM, Popova TF et al: Vinpocetine treatment in acute

ischaemic stroke: a pilot single- blind randomized clinical trial. Eur J Neurol.

2001 Jan;8(1):81-5.


(22) Truss MC, Stief CG, Uckert S et al: Initial clinical experience with the

selective phosphodiesterase-I isoenzyme inhibitor vinpocetine in the

treatment of urge incontinence and low compliance bladder. World J Urol.

2000 Dec;18(6):439-43.


(23) Miyazaki M: The effect of a cerebral vasodilator, vinpocetine, on cerebral

vascular resistance evaluated by the Doppler ultrasonic technique in patients

with cerebrovascular diseases. Angiology. 1995 Jan;46(1):53-8.


(24) Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H: Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine

in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic

psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991 Spring;6(1):31-43.


(25) Dutov AA, Gal'tvanitsa GA, Volkova VA et al: Cavinton in the prevention of

the convulsive syndrome in children after birth injury. Zh Nevropatol

Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1991;91(8):21-2. (Russian).


(26) Kiss E: Adjuvant effect of cavinton in the treatment of climacteric

symptoms. Ther Hung. 1990;38(4):170-3.


(27) Bhatti JZ, Hindmarch I: Vinpocetine effects on cognitive impairments

produced by flunitrazepam. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987 Oct;2(4):325-31.


(28) Balestreri R, Fontana L, Astengo F: A double-blind placebo controlled

evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of

patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction.J Am Geriatr Soc.

1987 May;35(5):425-30.


(29) Pilgramm M, Schumann K: Need for rheologically active, vasoactive and

metabolically active substances in the initial treatment of acute acoustic

trauma. HNO. 1986 Oct;34(10):424-8. (German).


(30) Domzał T, Kozłowski P, Zaleska : Cavinton in the treatment of ischemic

cerebral stroke. Clinical and computerized-tomographic evaluation. Neurol

Neurochir Pol. 1986 May-Jun;20(3):234-40. (Polish).


(31) Subhan Z, Hindmarch I: Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in

normal healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1985;28(5):567-71.


(32) Bodo D, Kotovskaia AR, Galle RR et al: Effectiveness of the preparation

Gavinton in preventing motion sickness. Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1982 May-

Jun;16(3):49-51. (Russian).

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