LYCOPENE  Benefits:

Lycopene - Found in tomatoes, fruits and vegetables,

such as cherries, watermelon, pink grapefruit, red bell peppers and papayas.  There are many fruits and vegetables such as asparagus and parsley that also contain lycopene.  (Support studies listed in the Scientific Studies)  

 

  Helps Support:

  1. Heart Health

  2. Circulatory System Health

  3. Enhanced Antioxidant Activity

The name “Lycopene” is derived from the Latin Solanum lycopersicum, the Linnaean name for the common Tomato. It is the bright red pigment found in tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables, such as cherries, watermelon, pink grapefruit, red bell peppers and papayas. However, there are many fruits and vegetables such as asparagus and parsley that contain lycopene yet are not

red in color.

 

Lycopene is not water soluble so upon ingestion, it is incorporated in fat globules in the intestines and then disseminated. As it permeates the

very low-density lipoproteins in the blood, those made up of triglycerides and the “bad” cholesterol, this may in some way explain its benefits in preventing/ameliorating atherosclerosis. Similarly, lycopene supplementation is associated with enhancing high density lipoprotein levels (the “good” cholesterol) and reducing blood pressure so in general, acts effectively on the

cardiovascular system.

 

As it is hydrophobic, Lycopene primarily ends up residing in fatty tissues and organs, such as the prostate. Thus, it is logical and has been shown in studies to reduce prostate symptoms, PSA levels and perhaps, the risk of prostate cancer itself. Additionally, its concentration in the fatty tissues, such as the testes, could explain its effects on male fertility and spermatogenesis.

 

There are several studies that have shown it is effective in some types of inflammation; that it may reduce the risk and severity of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women; and even, could play a role in reduce the risk of macular degeneration. There are some studies indicating that Lycopene can reduce the risk associated with UV damage from Sun overexposure which is consistent with the role it plays in skin pigmentation.

 

Lycopene is probably best known from larger studies reporting the benefits of normal tomato consumption – such as the reduction of cardiovascular incidents and increased quality and span of life as seen in the Mediterranean diet. While it is true that a higher level of serum Lycopene is associated with a healthy lifestyle, it is interesting to note that one study reported that in a subgroup with high lycopene levels, the reverse was found: poor health parameters.

 

Further review revealed that in this subgroup, the main source of Lycopene was in fact from ketchup. This group relied heavily on fast food restaurants for sustenance so while their levels were higher, their general lifestyle negated any perceived benefits.

LYCOPENE  Science:

Ingredient: LYCOPENE - Works Cited:

(1) Mariani S, Lionetto L, Cavallari M et al: Low prostate concentration of

lycopene is associated with development of prostate cancer in patients with

high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Jan

21;15(1):1433-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24451130

 

(2) Daniels JA, Mulligan C, McCance D et al: A randomized controlled trial of

increasing fruit and vegetable intake and how this influences the carotenoid

concentration and activities of PON-1 and LCAT in HDL from subjects with

type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014 Jan 14; 13:16.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423117

 

(3) Datta M, Taylor ML, Frizzell B: Dietary and serum lycopene levels in

prostate cancer patients undergoing intensity- modulated radiation therapy.

J Med Food. 2013 Dec;16(12):1131-7.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24180552

(4) Kesse-Guyot E, Andreeva VA, Ducros V et al: Carotenoid-rich dietary

patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function. Br J Nutr. 2014

Mar 14;111(5):915-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24073964

 

(5) Zou ZY, Xu XR, Lin XM et al: Effects of lutein and lycopene on carotid

intima-media thickness in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis: a

randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2014

Feb;111(3):474-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24047757

 

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prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective

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and lycopene (Profluss®) on chronic inflammation associated with benign

prostatic hyperplasia: results of "FLOG" (Flogosis and Profluss in Prostatic

and Genital Disease), a multicentre Italian study. Int Braz J Urol. 2013 Mar-

Apr;39(2):214-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683667

 

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Additional Studies:

 

  1. Agarwal S, Rao A: Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. Lipids. 1998. 33(10):981-4. 

  2. Burton-Freeman B, Talbot J, Park E et al: Protective activity of processed tomato products on postprandial oxidation and inflammation: a clinical trial in healthy weight men and women. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012. 56(4):622-31. 

  3. Chen J, Song Y, Zhang L: Lycopene/tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013. 59(3):213-23. 

  4. Devaraj S, Mathur S, Basu A et al: A dose-response study on the effects of purified lycopene supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008. 27(2):267-73. 

  5. Di Giacomo C, Acquaviva R, Sorrenti V et al: Oxidative and antioxidant status in plasma of runners: effect of oral supplementation with natural antioxidants. J Med Food. 2009. 12(1):145-50. 

  6. Garrido M, González-Flores D, Marchena AM et al: A lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil enhances antioxidant status in humans. J Sci Food Agric. 2013. 93(8):1820-6.

  7. Hadley C, Clinton S, Schwartz S: The consumption of processed tomato products enhances plasma lycopene concentrations in association with a reduced lipoprotein sensitivity to oxidative damage. J Nutr. 2003. 133(3):727-32. 

  8. Hozawa A, Jacobs D Jr, Steffes M et al: Relationships of circulating carotenoid concentrations with several markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)/Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA) study. Clin Chem. 2007. 53(3):447-55. 

  9. Kim JY, Paik JK, Kim OY et al: Effects of lycopene supplementation on oxidative stress and markers of endothelial function in healthy men. Atherosclerosis. 2011. 215(1):189-95. 

  10. Maruyama C, Imamura K, Oshima S et al: Effects of tomato juice consumption on plasma and lipoprotein carotenoid concentrations and the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001. 47(3):213-21. 

  11. Paran E, Novack V, Engelhard YN et al: The effects of natural antioxidants from tomato extract in treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2009. 23(2):145-51. 

  12. Riccioni G, Scotti L, Di Ilio E et al: Lycopene and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2011. 25(3):435-41

  13. Schwarz S, Obermüller-Jevic U, Hellmis E et al: Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. J Nutr. 2008. 138(1):49-53. 

  14. Shen YC, Chen SL, Wang CK: Contribution of tomato phenolics to antioxidation and down-regulation of blood lipids. J Agric Food Chem. 2007. 8;55(16):6475-81. 

  15. Silaste ML, Alfthan G, Aro A et al: Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation. Br J Nutr. 2007. 98(6):1251-8. 

  16. Torbergsen A, Collins A: Recovery of human lymphocytes from oxidative DNA damage; the apparent enhancement of DNA repair by carotenoids is probably simply an antioxidant effect. Eur J Nutr. 2000. 39(2):80-5. 

  17. Tyssandier V, Feillet-Coudray C, Caris-Veyrat C et al: Effect of tomato product consumption on the plasma status of antioxidant microconstituents and on the plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004. 23(2):148-56. 

  18. Visioli F, Riso P, Grande S et al: Protective activity of tomato products on in vivo markers of lipid oxidation. Eur J Nutr. 2003. 42(4):201-6. 

  19. Xaplanteris P, Vlachopoulos C, Pietri P et al: Tomato paste supplementation improves endothelial dynamics and reduces plasma total oxidative status in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 2012. 32(5):390-4. 

  20. Zhang X, Wang Q, Neil B et al: Effect of lycopene on androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen velocity. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010. 123(16):2231-6. 

  Zou ZY, Xu XR, Lin XM et al: Effects of lutein and lycopene on carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  Br J Nutr. 2014. 111(3):474-80. 

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