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Astragalus - (Astragalus membranaceus) root, also known as Milkvetch, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2,000 years.  While it has be traditionally used to protect the liver, for aging, stress and the heart, date reveals that it may be effective in enhancing the immune system.

  • Also know as an Adaptogen

  • Telomeres Activity  

 (Support studies listed in the Scientific Studies)

​ Helps Support:

  1. Immune System

  2. Healthy Immune Cell Function

  3. May help reduce seasonal allergies


Ingredient: ASTRAGALUS - Works Cited:


(1) Brush J, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A et al: The effect of Echinacea

purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69

expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res. 2006



(2) Mao SP, Cheng KL, Zhou YF et al: Modulatory effect of Astragalus

membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex

keratitis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Feb;24(2):121-3. (Chinese).


(3) Huang ZQ, Qin NP, Ye W: Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Tlymphocyte

subsets in patients with viral myocarditis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi

Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Jun;15(6):328-30. (Chinese).


(4) Zhang X, Chen J: The mechanism of astragaloside IV promoting sciatic

nerve regeneration. Neural Regen Res. 2013 Aug 25;8(24):2256-65.


(5) Chen Z, Cai Y, Zhang W et al: Astragaloside IV inhibits platelet-derived

growth factor-BB-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth

muscle cells via the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling. Exp Ther Med. 2014



(6) Qiu YY, Zhu JX, Bian T et al: Protective Effects of Astragaloside IV against

Ovalbumin-Induced Lung Inflammation Are Regulated/Mediated by Tbet/

GATA-3.Pharmacology. 2014 Aug 28;94(1-2):51-59.


(7) Shao A, Guo S, Tu S etal: Astragaloside IV alleviates early brain injury

following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Int J Med Sci. 2014

Aug 8;11(10):1073-81.


(8) Yang M, Lin HB, Gong S et al: Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on

expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and NFATc4 in a rat model of experimental colitis.

Cytokine. 2014 Aug 14.


(9) Ip FC, Ng YP, An HJ et al: Cycloastragenol Is a Potent Telomerase Activator

in Neuronal Cells: Implications for Depression Management. Neurosignals.

2014 Jul 31;22(1):52-63.


(10) Fu J, Wang Z, Huang L et al: Review of the Botanical Characteristics,

Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi).

Phytother Res. 2014 Sep;28(9):1275-83.


(11) Zhang A, Zheng Y, Que Z et al: Astragaloside IV inhibits progression of

lung cancer by mediating immune function of Tregs and CTLs by interfering

with IDO. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014 Jul 1.


(12) Dai H, Jia G, Liu X et al: Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits isoprenalineinduced

cardiac hypertrophy via suppressing Ca(2+)-mediated

calcineurin/NFATc3 and CaMKII signaling cascades. Environ Toxicol

Pharmacol. 2014 Jul;38(1):263-71.


(13) Sun Q, Jia N, Wang W et al: Protective effects of astragaloside IV against

amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability

transition pore opening. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 6;9(6):e98866.


(14) Gu J, Liu K, Li H et al: Astragalus saponin attenuates the expression of

fibrosis-related molecules in irradiated cardiac fibroblasts. Acta Biochim

Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014 Jun;46(6):492-501.


(15) Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang Z et al: The effect of Astragalus polysaccharide on

the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle. Acta Virol. 2014;58(1):76-80.

(16) Oh HA, Choi HJ, Kim NJ et al: Anti-stress effect of astragaloside IV in

immobilized mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 May 14;153(3):928-



(17) Kim MH, Kim SH, Yang WM: Beneficial effects of Astragaloside IV for hair

loss via inhibition of Fas/Fas L- mediated apoptotic signaling. PLoS One. 2014

Mar 27;9(3):e92984.


(18) Chen X, May B, Di YM et al: Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with

pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE

index and six minute walk test. PLoS One. 2014 Mar



(19) Yeh TS, Chuang HL, Huang WC et al: Astragalus membranaceus improves

exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained

mice. Molecules. 2014 Mar 3;19(3):2793-807.


(20) Yang J, Wang HX, Zhang YJ et al: Astragaloside IV attenuates

inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting TLR4/NF-кB signaling pathway in

isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct

25. pii: S0378-8741(13)00724-



(21) Wang B, Chen MZ: Astragaloside IV possesses antiarthritic effect by

preventing interleukin 1β-induced joint inflammation and cartilage damage.

Arch Pharm Res. 2014 Jun;37(6):793-802. 


(22) Yang J, Wang HX, Zhang YJ et al: Astragaloside IV attenuates

inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting TLR4/NF-кB signaling pathway in

isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Dec


(23) Jia Y, Zuo D, Li Z et al: Astragaloside IV inhibits doxorubicin-induced

cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via

activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2014;62(1):45-53.


(24) Agyemang K, Han L, Liu E et al: Recent Advances in Astragalus

membranaceus Anti-Diabetic Research: Pharmacological Effects of Its

Phytochemical Constituents. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.



(25) Jin M, Zhao K, Huang Q et al: Structural features and biological activities

of the polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus. Int J Biol Macromol.

2014 Mar;64:257-66.


(26) In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of formononetin on human

cervical cancer cell line HeLa. Jin YM, Xu TM, Zhao YH, Wang YC, Cui MH.

Tumour Biol. 2014 Mar;35(3):2279-84.


(27) Wang T, Xuan X, Li M et al: Astragalus saponins affect proliferation,

invasion and apoptosis of gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Diagn Pathol. 2013

Oct 24;8:179.


(28) Wang SG, Xu Y, Chen JD et al: Astragaloside IV stimulates angiogenesis

and increases nitric oxide accumulation via JAK2/STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathway.

Molecules. 2013 Oct 16;18(10):12809-19.



(29) Yang B, Xiao B, Sun T: Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of

Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice. Int J

Biol Macromol. 2013 Nov;62:287-90.


(30) Ren S, Zhang H, Mu Y et al: Pharmacological effects of Astragaloside IV: a

literature review. J Tradit Chin Med. 2013 Jun;33(3):413-6. Review.


(31) Ma X, Zhang K, Li H et al: Extracts from Astragalus membranaceus limit

myocardial cell death and improve cardiac function in a rat model of

myocardial ischemia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct 7;149(3):720-8.


(32) Lu L, Wang DT, Shi Y et al: Astragalus polysaccharide improves muscle

atrophy from dexamethasone- and peroxide-induced injury in vitro. Int J Biol

Macromol. 2013 Oct;61:7-16.


(33) Li W, Sun YN, Yan XT et al: NF-κB inhibitory activity of sucrose fatty acid

esters and related constituents from Astragalus membranaceus. J Agric Food

Chem. 2013 Jul 24;61(29):7081-8.


(34) Li W, Sun YN, Yan XT et al: Flavonoids from Astragalus membranaceus

and their inhibitory effects on LPS- stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine

production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2014



(35) Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak I, Wojnar W, Zych M et al: Effect of formononetin on

mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with

ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.



(36) Li M, Ma RN, Li LH et al: Astragaloside IV reduces cerebral edema postischemia/

reperfusion correlating the suppression of MMP-9 and AQP4. Eur J

Pharmacol. 2013 Sep 5;715(1-3):189-95.


(37) Qi W, Niu J, Qin Q et al: Astragaloside IV attenuates glycated albumininduced

epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting oxidative stress in

renal proximal tubular cells. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2014 Jan;19(1):105-14.


(38) Wang H, Zhang Y, Xia T et al: Synergistic promotion of blood vessel

regeneration by astragaloside IV and ferulic acid from electrospun fibrous

mats. Mol Pharm. 2013 Jun 3;10(6):2394-403.


(39) Lai PK, Chan JY, Wu SB et al: Anti-inflammatory activities of an active

fraction isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus in RAW 264.7

macrophages. Phytother Res. 2014 Mar;28(3):395-404.


(40) Zhao M, Zhao J, He G et al: Effects of astragaloside IV on action potentials

and ionic currents in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Biol Pharm Bull.




(41) Lee DY, Noh HJ, Choi J et al: Anti-inflammatory cycloartane-type saponins

of Astragalus membranaceus. Molecules. 2013 Mar 25;18(4):3725-32.


(42) Wan CP, Gao LX, Hou LF et al: Astragaloside II triggers T cell activation

through regulation of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. Acta

Pharmacol Sin. 2013 Apr;34(4):522-30.


(43) Yang Y, Chin A, Zhang L et al: The role of traditional Chinese medicines in

osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Phytother Res. 2014 Jan;28(1):1-8.


(44) Gui D, Huang J, Guo Y et al: Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in

streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through inhibiting NF-κB-mediated

inflammatory genes expression. Cytokine. 2013 Mar;61(3):970-7.

(45) Molgora B, Bateman R, Sweeney G et al: Functional assessment of

pharmacological telomerase activators in human T cells. Cells. 2013 Jan



(46) Yang ZC, Qu ZH, Yi MJ et al: Astragalus extract attenuates allergic airway

inflammation and inhibits nuclear factor κB expression in asthmatic mice.

Am J Med Sci. 2013 Nov;346(5):390-5.


(47) Hong MJ, Ko EB, Park SK et al: Inhibitory effect of Astragalus

membranaceus root on matrix metalloproteinase-1 collagenase expression

and procollagen destruction in ultraviolet B-irradiated human dermal

fibroblasts by suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activity. J Pharm

Pharmacol. 2013 Jan;65(1):142-8.


(48) Jin H, Luo Q, Zheng Y et al: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells contribute to the

antiasthmatic effects of Astragalus membranaceus extract in a rat model of

asthma. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Jan;15(1):42-9.


(49) Yan L, Zhou QH: Study on neuroprotective effects of astragalan in rats

with ischemic brain injury and its mechanisms. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li

Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Jul;28(4):373-7. (Chinese).


(50) Kang SC, Kim HJ, Kim MH: Effects of Astragalus membranaceus with

supplemental calcium on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in

calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013



(51) Liu J, Zhang JF, Lu JZ et al: Astragalus polysaccharide stimulates glucose

uptake in L6 myotubes through AMPK activation and AS160/TBC1D4

phosphorylation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013 Jan;34(1):137-45.


(52) Chen W, Xia Y, Zhao X et al: The critical role of Astragalus polysaccharides

for the improvement of PPARα [correction of PPRAα]-mediated lipotoxicity in

diabetic cardiomyopathy. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e45541.



(53) Zhao J, Yang P, Li F et al: Therapeutic effects of astragaloside IV on

myocardial injuries: multi-target identification and network analysis. PLoS

One. 2012;7(9):e44938.



(54) Auyeung KK, Law PC, Ko JK: Novel anti-angiogenic effects of

formononetin in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft. Oncol Rep.

2012 Dec;28(6):2188-94.


(55) Du X, Zhao B, Li J et al: Astragalus polysaccharides enhance immune

responses of HBV DNA vaccination via promoting the dendritic cell

maturation and suppressing Treg frequency in mice. Int Immunopharmacol.

2012 Dec;14(4):463-70.


(56) Yang C, Ma Z: Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in restenosis

rats and function of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012 Jun;37(11):1655-8. (Chinese).


(57) Qin Q, Niu J, Wang Z et al: Astragalus membranaceus Inhibits

Inflammation via Phospho-P38 Mitogen- Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and

Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB Pathways in Advanced Glycation End Product-

Stimulated Macrophages. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(7):8379-87.


(58) Wang Y, Zhu Y, Gao L et al: Formononetin attenuates IL-1β-induced

apoptosis and NF-κB activation in INS-1 cells. Molecules. 2012 Aug



(59) Tian QE, De Li H, Yan M et al: Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on Pglycoprotein

efflux pump function and protein expression in H22 hepatoma

cells in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jul 11;12:94.


(60) Qin Q, Niu J, Wang Z et al: Astragalus embranaceus extract activates

immune response in macrophages via heparanase. Molecules. 2012 Jun



(61) Li FL, Li X, Wang YF et al: Astragaloside IV Downregulates β-Catenin in Rat

Keratinocytes to Counter LiCl-Induced Inhibition of Proliferation and

Migration. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:956107.


(62) Lai PK, Chan JY, Cheng L et al: Isolation of anti-inflammatory fractions

and compounds from the root of Astragalus membranaceus. Phytother Res.

2013 Apr;27(4):581-7.


(63) Kim W, Kim SH, Park SK et al: Astragalus membranaceus ameliorates

reproductive toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in male mice. Phytother

Res. 2012 Sep;26(9):1418-21. Jun 2.


(64) You Y, Duan Y, Liu SW et al: Anti-atherosclerotic function of Astragali

Radix extract: downregulation of adhesion molecules in vitro and in vivo.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Apr 26;12:54.


(65) Li Q, Bao JM, Li XL et al: Inhibiting effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on

the functions of CD4+CD25 highTreg cells in the tumor microenvironment of

human hepatocellular carcinoma. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012 Mar;125(5):786-93.



(66) Chen CC, Lee HC, Chang JH et al: Chinese Herb Astragalus

membranaceus Enhances Recovery of Hemorrhagic Stroke: Double-Blind,

Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat

Med. 2012;2012:708452.


(67) Han XH, Liu P, Zhang YY et al: Astragaloside IV regulates expression of

ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits after ischemia-reperfusion in rat

ventricular cardiomyocytes. J Tradit Chin Med. 2011 Dec;31(4):321-6.


(68) He X, Shu J, Xu L et al: Inhibitory effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on

lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-a and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells.

Molecules. 2012 Mar 12;17(3):3155-64.



(69) Xiong M, He Q, Lai H et al: Astragaloside IV inhibits apoptotic cell death in

the guinea pig cochlea exposed to impulse noise. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012



(70) Huang LH, Yan QJ, Kopparapu NK et al: Astragalus membranaceus lectin

(AML) induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells. Cell

Prolif. 2012 Feb;45(1):15-21.


(71) Ye MN, Chen HF, Zhou RJ et al: Effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on

proliferation and Akt phosphorylation of the basal-like breast cancer cell line.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011 Dec;9(12):1339-46. (Chinese).

(72) Jia R, Cao L, Xu P et al: In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and

antioxidant effects of Astragalus polysaccharides against carbon

tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Fish Physiol Biochem. 2012 Jun;38(3):871-81.


(73) Zheng R, Deng Y, Chen Y et al: Astragaloside IV attenuates complement

membranous attack complex induced podocyte injury through the MAPK

pathway. Phytother Res. 2012 Jun;26(6):892-8.


(74) Du X, Chen X, Zhao B et al: Astragalus polysaccharides enhance the

humoral and cellular immune responses of hepatitis B surface antigen

vaccination through inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor

β and the frequency of regulatory T cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.

2011 Nov;63(2):228-35.

(75) Yang B, Ji C, Chen X et al: Protective effect of astragaloside IV against

matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in ultraviolet-irradiated human

dermal fibroblasts. Arch Pharm Res. 2011 Sep;34(9):1553-60.


(76) Zhao LH, Ma ZX, Zhu J et al: Characterization of polysaccharide from

Astragalus radix as the macrophage stimulator. Cell Immunol.



(77) Chen R, Shao H, Lin S et al: Treatment with Astragalus membranaceus

produces antioxidative effects and attenuates intestinal mucosa injury

induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Am J Chin Med.



(78) Hu XY, Xia RX, Cheng CB et al: Mechanism of apoptosis in human

leukemia NB4 cells induced by total astragalosides. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za

Zhi. 2011 May;33(5):345-8. (Chinese).


(79) Auyeung KK, Woo PK, Law PC et al: Astragalus saponins modulate cell

invasiveness and angiogenesis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. J

Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 1;141(2):635-41.


(80) Collins RA: A ten-year audit of traditional Chinese medicine and other

natural product research published in the Chinese Medical Journal (2000-

2009). Chin Med J (Engl). 2011 May;124(9):1401-8.



(81) Zhang L, Liu Q, Lu L et al: Astragaloside IV stimulates angiogenesis and

increases hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accumulation via phosphatidylinositol

3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Aug;338(2):485-91.


(82) Zhang N, Wang XH, Mao SL et al: Astragaloside IV improves metabolic

syndrome and endothelium dysfunction in fructose-fed rats. Molecules. 2011

May 10;16(5):3896-907.


(83) Li SG, Chen Y, Zhang YQ: Effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on

nephritis induced by cationic bovine serum albumin in rats. Zhong Yao Cai.

2010 Dec;33(12):1913-6. (Chinese).


(84) Xiong M, Lai H, He Q et al: Astragaloside IV attenuates impulse noiseinduced

trauma in guinea pig..Acta Otolaryngol. 2011 Aug;131(8):809-16.


(85) Shang L, Qu Z, Sun L et al: Astragaloside IV inhibits adenovirus replication

and apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 May;63(5):688-



(86) Zhang L, Yang Y, Wang Y et al: Astragalus membranaceus extract

promotes neovascularisation by VEGF pathway in rat model of ischemic

injury. Pharmazie. 2011 Feb;66(2):144-50.


(87) Bernardes de Jesus B, Schneeberger K, Vera E, Tejera A et al: The

telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health

span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence. Aging Cell. 2011




(88) Wang YJ, Yu YR: Protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus on free

fatty acid-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Sichuan Da Xue Xue

Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011 Jan;42(1):48-51. (Chinese).


(89) Zhang LJ, Liu HK, Hsiao PC et al: New isoflavonoid glycosides and related

constituents from astragali radix (Astragalus membranaceus ) and their

inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb



(90) Harley CB, Liu W, Blasco M et al: A natural product telomerase activator

as part of a health maintenance program. Rejuvenation Res. 2011



(91) Zhang CL, Kong XL, Chen SX et al: Effect of astragalus membranaceus on

the proliferation, osteogenic capacity and structure of periodontal ligament

cells in vitro. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Oct;28(5):556-9. (Chinese).


(92) Tang D, He B, Zheng ZG et al: Inhibitory effects of two major

isoflavonoids in Radix Astragali on high glucose-induced mesangial cells

proliferation and AGEs-induced endothelial cells apoptosis. Planta Med. 2011



(93) Li YR, Cao W, Guo J et al: Comparative investigations on the protective

effects of rhodioside, ciwujianoside- B and astragaloside IV on radiation

injuries of the hematopoietic system in mice. Phytother Res. 2011



(94) Huh JE, Nam DW, Baek YH et al: Formononetin accelerates wound repair

by the regulation of early growth response factor-1 transcription factor

through the phosphorylation of the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. Int

Immunopharmacol. 2011 Jan;11(1):46-54.


(95) Li M, Wang W, Xue J et al: Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus

membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan



(96) Jaskelioff M, Muller FL, Paik JH et al: Telomerase reactivation reverses

tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice. Nature. 2011 Jan


(97) Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor necrosis

factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi

Jie He Za Zhi. 2010 Jul;30(7):699-701. (Chinese).


(98) Denzler KL, Waters R, Jacobs BL et al: Regulation of inflammatory gene

expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals. PLoS One. 2010 Sep



(99) Callaway E: Telomerase reverses ageing process. Nature. 28 November

2010 doi:10.1038/news.2010.635


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2007 Oct 449: 515.

Additional Studies:  

  1. Bao-Mei S, Xu W, Dai H et al: A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 2004. 1103–1111.

  2. Block K, Mead M: Immune System Effects of Echinacea, Ginseng, and Astragalus: A Review. Int Cancer Ther. 2003. 2(3):247-267.

  3. Boroujerdnia M, Azemi M, Hemmati A et al: Immunomodulatory Effects of Astragalus gypsicolus Hydroalcoholic Extract in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Mice Model. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011.  10(4):281-288.

  4. Brush J, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A et al: The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res. 2006. 20(8):687-95.

  5. Jiang D, Wang X, Su Q et al: Milkvetch root improves immune function in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Biomed Mater Eng. 2015. S2113-21. 

  6. Mao S, Cheng K, Zhou Y: [Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004. 24(2):121-3.

  7. Matkovic Z, Zivkovic V, Korica M et al: Efficacy and safety of Astragalus membranaceus in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Phytother Res. 2010. 24(2):175-81.

  8. Shih-Ming C, Tsai y, Lee S et al: Astragalus membranaceus modulates Th1/2 immune balance and activates PPARγ in a murine asthma model. Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2014. 92(5):397-405.

  9. Su G, Chen  X, Liu  Z et al: Oral Astragalus (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015. 11:CD011958.

  10. Zwickey H, Brush J, Iacullo C et al: The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study. Phytother Res. 2007. 21(11):1109-12.

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